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    淺談演奏者心理熟知的培養

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    掃一掃!淺談演奏者心理熟知的培養掃一掃!
    瀏覽:- 發布日期:2018-03-14 11:30:14【

    常言道:“藝高人膽大,膽大藝更高。”這句話十分辯證地說明了高超技藝與良好心理素質之間的關系,它對演奏者具有重要的指導意義。

    “藝高人膽大”,顧名思義就是要在臺下做好充分的準備,通過刻苦的練習和科學的方法使演奏技藝不斷提高、作品日臻成熟,只有達到這樣的境界,演奏者在臺上才可能大膽地演奏。根據多次參加演奏的經歷,我發現:一般在臺下練得比較嫻熟、很有把握時,上臺基本能發揮得很好;而如果準備不足,心中無數,則最容易導致演奏的失敗。

    總結經驗教訓,為了成功完成一次重大的演出任務,我很早便開始準備曲目,以數月的琢磨和練習,到演出前我對這些作品已是了如指掌、爛熟于心,因而上臺時沒有絲毫的顧慮和負擔,只是一門心思地想音樂,狀態非常地投入、放松,演奏順暢自如,終于達到了我理想中的境界,得到了一致好評。由此可見,只有經過充分的準備達到一定的演奏水平之后,演奏者才可能放開膽子無拘無束地彈奏。因此,“藝高”的確是“膽大”的基礎,是演奏成敗的基本保證。

    然而,是否說演奏成敗的關鍵就在于此呢?我看不然。它的關鍵應當來自于這句話的后半部分——“膽大藝更高”。它實際上講的是心理素質的重要性。因為任何演奏前的充分準備都是相對而言的,“藝高”固然可以使人“膽大”,但并不是所有的人都肯定“膽大”,這時候就看誰具備良好的心理素質。而它的作用是顯而易見的:演奏者如果心理調適能力較強、心理狀態好,即“膽大”則能使其“藝高”得到更充分、甚至超常的展現;同時,即使是那些相對來說“藝”還不夠高的人,也會因“膽大”而適度彌補其因準備不足而帶來的缺欠,保證演奏的順利進行。在這點上我有著深切的體會。我曾參加過一個極富挑戰性的比賽,在短短20天內要背出并彈好相當于一場音樂會份量的曲目,而且其中只有五分之一是我以前曾經彈過的,其它全部都是新的。雖然那些天我是夜以繼日地發奮用功,但是畢竟由于準備的時間太短,所以到比賽前我只有八成的把握,當時心里非常焦急,總是怕上臺緊張忘記譜子,思想壓力很大。但是在比賽當天思想卻突然出現了轉變,可能正是由于覺得己經沒有時間、不可能再練了,不想彈也得彈,因而當時有一種豁出去的感覺,誰也不怕了,完全卸掉了思想包袱,信心倍增,并且開始出現興奮點。上臺后一口氣彈了1個多小時,其間心情一直非常放松,狀態好極了,最后那次比賽成為我多年來發揮最好的一次,給聽眾留下了深刻的印象。像這樣的情況我想也會經常出現在其他的演奏者身上,也一定與我有同感。這就說明放松的心態、大膽自信的表演和良好的心理素質對演奏者有多么的重要!因此,“膽大”可以說是一切技巧性、競賽性活動取得成功的關鍵。

    如何培養這種良好的心理素質呢?

    首先,需要了解演奏者在上臺前經常會出現的幾種心理狀態,它一般分為三類:

    第一類:燥動癥。表現為情緒狀態不穩定、心不在焉、記憶減弱等特點。

    第二類:淡漠癥。與前者相反,表現為興奮很低、甚至貪眠;缺乏參加演奏的愿望;心境不佳;知覺和注意過程的強度減弱。

    第三類:臨戰狀態。特點是注意力集中,知覺與興奮過程加劇等等,它具有增力的作用,保證演奏者的機能達到最大效率,有助于演奏任務的順利完成。

    不用說,第三類是最好的心理狀態。這種狀態并不是天生的,多是后天逐漸培養出來的。至于培養的方法和渠道,我認為有二個:其一,就是要樹立自信。記得一位大師曾經講過:“自信心、聲音美、表演是成功演奏家必備的三要素。”我的老師也經常給我講:“演奏時想像你就是皇帝。”其二,必須多上臺鍛煉。“膽大”是同舞臺經驗成正比的,只有無數次的上臺鍛煉,最終才能形成良好的心理素質。此外,我們還需努力提高自己的精神境界,在演奏中盡量拋棄“自我”,不計較個人得失,真正把自己溶入音樂,再現那些偉大藝術家的心聲,只有這樣,我們才能從根本上達到演奏中放松自如的境界。

    以上這些都是我的經驗之談。總之,“藝高人膽大,膽大藝更高”是辯證的統一體,二者互補,相互促進,密不可分。希望我們牢記并實踐這句看起來淺顯而做起來卻并不容易的話,因為它可以使我們從中受益無窮!

    下一篇:認識鋼琴 上一篇:鋼琴制造中的數據
    拉菲2彩票
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