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  • 在線留言|聯系青島琴行|收藏青島琴行|網站地圖登錄注冊

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    鋼琴家如何對付鋼琴

    返回列表 來源:正一琴行 查看手機網址
    掃一掃!鋼琴家如何對付鋼琴掃一掃!
    瀏覽:- 發布日期:2018-03-14 11:26:54【

    鋼琴家如何對付鋼琴是一門大學問。缺乏經驗的演奏家往往會在樂器方面吃大虧。鋼琴家應該經常檢查鋼琴的可靠性,讓鋼琴適合表現他對作品的理解。樂器狀態不好,演出是要砸牌子的。演奏家要與鋼琴交朋友,給予它應有的照顧。

    音樂圈里流傳過這樣一句俗語:“沒有不好的鋼琴,只有不好的鋼琴家”。這話聽起來很有道理,甚至還會有人給它喝彩。外行人還會四處傳播這種說法。鋼琴家們卻對它感到困惑。不可否認,鋼琴家彈什么樣的琴總要比業余演奏者聽起來要好,那么這就意味著可以對鋼琴自身的毛病忽略不計嗎?一架沒有調整好的、音區不平衡的、甚至有雜音的樂器不僅意味著對音樂的破壞,對樂器的控制和個性化處理就更談不上了。

    鋼琴不是批量生產的產品。每件樂器,即使是同一位工匠的產品,對于鋼琴家來說也是一個全新的體驗。鋼琴家看著提琴手可以拎著自己的樂器走會感到嫉妒,他們唯一的安慰是管風琴手和羽管鍵琴手的機械調整問題要比自己還多。審聽鋼琴要花那么多的精力,一些小毛病也會讓演奏會受到嚴重影響。鋼琴家還會發現,某件樂器適合演奏某類作品卻不適合演奏另一類作品。聲音具有歌唱性,高音不尖刻,低音也很柔和的鋼琴很容易把肖邦作品演得生活化;有較低的中音區伯森多弗爾琴可以把舒伯特歌曲伴奏控制的恰如其分。帶著自己的鋼琴一起旅行過的演奏家還有這樣的經驗:同樣的斯坦威或者伯森多弗爾琴在不同的音樂廳會會發出不同聲音,音樂廳的音響條件——回聲大或者回聲小,聲音的亮度、清晰度和寬闊度——都會對演奏者產生影響。

    鋼琴家在對樂器和音樂廳的適應中會會遇到眾多困難。首先,觀眾坐滿后的音樂廳與排練時的空音樂廳的聲音效果不一樣。比如維也納金色大廳以聲音效果聞名于世,當沒有觀眾的時候聲音反而顯得比較混亂。還有,傳到觀眾席上的聲音與舞臺上聽到的聲音不一致。有時,演奏者聽到舞臺上的一切都完美,但觀眾席則完全兩樣。這種聽覺錯位甚至讓鋼琴大師都感到迷惑,他必須憑借經驗來想象觀眾席上的效果,或者請自己的音樂朋友來幫忙審聽。

    對一架鋼琴狀態的估價是一個個人的問題,其標準沒有明顯界定。演奏家需要了解他是要為歌曲伴奏還是要演奏鳴曲;他要在50名還是要為5000名觀眾面前演奏;他是要演奏舒伯特的即興曲、還是要演貝多芬的瓦倫斯坦。

    在這里我想談一談演奏家在挑選音樂會鋼琴時的總體原則,這些原則在大多數情況下適用于每個鋼琴家。

    1、 琴聲必須有活力,有色彩變化,沒有毛刺感、沒有昏暗遲鈍的音。

    2、 琴的音量既能表現耳語達到又能表現怒吼。這一點要靠調音師的努力,并不需要演奏者擁有超人的力度,和最敏銳的低聲控制力。

    3、 踏版必須升降精確。即使在非常慢的情況下所有的制音器必須絕對沒有雜音。(制音器發出沙沙聲不應該認為是鋼琴家技術上的毛病,而是因為樂器沒有調整好)。

    4、 應該保證整場音樂會沒有大的音調錯位。(如果音調錯位,過錯不在樂器而在調音師的水平不高)

    整音技術對于鋼琴的狀態非常重要。整音是指音量的平衡。當某個琴鍵的聲音變得太響(幾乎每一場音樂會都出現這樣的問題),整音可以讓它回到與其他琴鍵相和諧的聲音水平。整音師的耳朵必須能夠察覺最細小的音高和音色順序;而且,只有連奏才可以察覺聲音的參差不齊。遺憾的是目前熟練的調音師很少,從現有的調音師那里還不能奢望這樣的能力。

    只有鋼琴家和調音師密切配合才有可能把樂器的整音效果搞好。由于缺乏高水平的調音師(即使是在一些大城市也是如此),整音經常出現問題。調音師們喜歡這樣說:“整音純屬個人體驗,這種工作沒有客觀標準。”調音師這種職業應該得到尊重,他們的地位需要提高。

    現在我們擁有的合格鋼琴家比合格的調音師要多得多。少得可憐的優秀調音師經常超負荷工作。在音樂廳、錄音室和廣播電臺工作完畢后,他們沒有時間向青年人傳授技巧。他們中的一些人對自己的絕活保密。在我看來,調音師需要藝術院校專門培養,他們也應當是一流的鋼琴家(盡管這樣要求不現實)。

    另一方面,所有的鋼琴家也應當了解整音技術。整音課程應當是鋼琴學生的必修課。調音師的平庸之舉的根源在于鋼琴家的無知。鋼琴家不能明確察覺樂器存在的問題,不能把自己的疑慮明白無誤地告訴調音師。有的鋼琴家甚至不知道三角鋼琴的最佳效果是個什么樣子。某些鋼琴廠家還會把有明顯缺陷的鋼琴投放市場。從這個角度說所謂“沒有次鋼琴,只有次鋼琴家”的說法簡直就是鋼琴推銷商在轉移人們對于鋼琴制作水平下降的注意力。


    拉菲2彩票
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